What is an NBFC?

A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) provides banking and other lending services without meeting the legal definition of a bank. It is Incorporated under Companies Act, 2013 or Companies Act, 1956 (Old). Every NBFC has to obtain Commencement of business certificate from RBI as defined under Section 45 I(a) of the RBI Act. NBFC shall not commence or carry on the business of Non- Banking Financial Institution without obtaining a Certificate of Registration issued by the Reserve Bank of India. NBFC registration or NBFC License can be obtained in 90-120 days.

The principal business of NBFC is providing loans and advances, acquisition of shares, debentures and other stocks issued by Government or other local authorities, insurance business, leasing, hire-purchase, etc. Moreover, any other non-banking institution, incorporated as a company under the Companies Act and having the principal business of receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement in one lump sum or installment, is also a non-banking financial company (NBFC).

In general, NBFC is filling up the gap of financial needs for the organized and unorganized section of the population. In the recent times, banks have targeted big commercial houses and individuals with excellent credit rating as their prime customers; This provided NBFCs with an opportunity to enlarge its presence in the financial market.

What are the Types of NBFC in India?

By nature of the activity, they undertake, NBFCs can be categorized into the following:

  • Asset Finance Company.
  • Investment Company.
  • Loan Company.
  • Infrastructure Finance Company.
  • Core Investment Company.
  • Micro Finance Company.
  • Mortgage Guarantee Company.
  • Housing Finance Company.

By deposits they hold, NBFCs can be further classified into two categories:

  • Deposit accepting NBFCs.
  • Non-Deposit accepting NBFCs.

By size or minimum capital requirement, NBFCs can be further classified into following two categories:

  • Systematically Important NBFCs.
  • Non Deposit Holding NBFCs.

Procedure for NBFC Registration

Any entity desirous of commencing the business of and being registered as NBFCs shall apply to RBI for the license (CoR) and must also fulfill the following two norms:

  • It should be a company incorporated under Companies Act, 2013.
  • It should be a company having minimum net owned funds of INR 2 crores.
  • The online application is available on RBI's website (COSMOS).
  • Submission of hard copy of the application along with attached documents shall be submitted RBI Office.
  • The license will be granted only after vigilant inspection of the application and documents attached with it.